Cuban fitness: an evolving culture

Cuba Fitness: An Evolving Culture
By Adam Murphy

A local gym in Havana, Cuba that is located in the front yard of a house, during the afternoon gym rush.

Cuban fitness: an evolving culture
It is a hot and humid afternoon in Havana, Cuba. The language spoken around by the locals is foreign and different, but while walking by a house I recognize a similar sound, the clanging and banging of weights and the grunting of men and women.

Behind a blocked chain link fence, I see a familiar sight. Men and women lifting weights and working out in a backyard area the size of a small apartment. A sign above the workout area said, “gimanasio”.

In the distance, a muscular man wearing a tight under armor shirt clinching to his muscles is moving with a purpose. His occupation is as obvious as the smell of sweat in the gym. He must be a trainer or at least someone who works here.

“My name is Alejandro, this is my gym,” the man says. Not only is he the owner of the gym, but also a personal trainer, gym janitor, and equipment handy man.

A man struggles during his last repetitions on a hack squat machine.

Like many people in Cuba, Alejandro is part of the growing population of entrepreneurs on the island looking to start their own businesses since the easing of restriction on private businesses by the communist government. Alejandro’s gym is still in its infancy as it only opened four years ago in his front yard as a way to make money and to pursue his passion.

“In Cuba we have to build or custom order all the equipment,” Alejandro said, since they are not readily available or cheap especially on an island where the average person makes $25 USD a month.

Although all the machines and equipment were custom made from spare materials, they were still recognizable and performed the same functions as the machines and equipment back in the United States.

Bench press stations, cable pulleys, pull-up bars, hack squat machine, leg presses, dumbbells, barbells, and other exercise machines are some of the equipment that can be found at most gyms in Cuba.

Cardio equipment in the country is harder to find. The majority of cardio machines found are stationary bikes, in addition to a few elliptical and stair climber machines. Treadmills are almost non-existent, the reason for this could have to do with the majority of the population having to use walking as the main mode of transportation.

A determined man completes a set of barbell shoulder raises.

Alejandro provided me with a list of other gyms in the area. About a ten-minute walk from his gym, the destination was near, but unclear. In that moment two people walked by wearing workout gear and carrying gym bags.

Unaware if these people were headed to the gym or heading home, I go out on a limb and follow them for two blocks. Down some stairs to the basement of a building and what do you know, it’s the gym!

This is a common theme of all the gyms in Cuba is they are all hidden with very little signage. Most of them were in the basements of larger buildings or down a dark alley, a place typically associated with drugs and crime not of barbells and cardio machines.

This is a stark contrast to the U.S. where gyms are highlighted with huge signs and neon lights in the hopes of drawing your attention. The gyms, like every other business in Cuba are a bit low key and often times have only a small sign that could be missed if you take too long to blink.

And yet, “Exercise is big in Cuba….any gym in the country will be full in the morning before work and in the evening after work” says Victor, a fitness enthusiast at a local gym. When asked about the demographics of people that come to the gym and for what reason he responds, “men and women both like to exercise…first for their health and second for their looks (depending on who you talk to)….older people work out too, but it is mostly younger people who come to the gym”.

An older man stands outside a gym in Havana and prepares to work out.

When asked how he knows what to do at the gym (specific exercises, reps, sets, etc.) he said he gets workout plans and information from two sources, the personal trainers at his gym and the internet.

All people that are members of Victor’s gym are required to meet with a personal trainer before they start using the facility. They orientate the new members on what all the machines and equipment do and how to use them.

Additionally, they provide the new member with a sample work out plan that ensures they work out every muscle (whether they follow this plan is up to them).

Lastly, the personal trainers briefly talk to them about nutrition, which Victor says is pretty simple, “eat natural foods…not fast food.”

Specific exercise programs and nutritional counseling can be made available to them if they schedule (pay) individual sessions, but if they have any questions they can always ask any personal trainer at the gym.

The fitness culture within Cuba is not limited to gyms of the country, but other areas that are associated with different aspects of fitness and physical activity.

Throughout the city of Havana there are recreational areas such as grass fields, basketball courts, baseball fields, jungle gym, and metal work out machines scattered in different neighborhoods.

The amount of these recreational places in such a small area shows how much physical activity, sports, and fitness is valued in a country where social welfare programs and the population’s well-being is valued.

Antonio, a local habanero exercising at one of the many recreational parks scattered throughout the city.

Besides free health care and education for it’s population the people of Cuba also receive a ration booklet. This book provides every person in Cuba with a basic amount of food and supplies per month.

Everyone is guaranteed a certain amount of rice, beans, eggs, and cooking oil per month. While this alone is not enough for Cubans to survive for a whole month, it does help and life without it could be impossible.

A butcher weighs pieces of pork that he cut for a customer at a carniceria or a butcher shop, in the back of a neighborhood farmer’s market.

Recently Raul Castro the leader of Cuba proposed eliminating the ration book due to its large cost, but he was met with overwhelming opposition. This system has affected not only regular Cubans nutrition habits, but also the nutrition options available to people involved within the fitness community.

There are four places to get your food in Cuba: farmer’s markets and grocery stores both state ran and private. The most obvious difference between the state ran markets and the private markets is that the state ran markets always have less products and a long line.

Products in the state ran businesses were cheaper, but they had less variety of goods and would run out of things faster. Prices were fixed at these state ran markets thanks to government subsidizes. This made food products cheaper for the population by reducing the cost to a fraction of their market value retail price.

Private markets had more availability and variety. Lines were also much shorter at these private markets, but prices were also higher.

Due to this price discrepancy and the variety of food available the average Cuban diet can vary widely depending on how much money they make and what is in stock. This means nutrition related to the fitness culture is often troublesome.

Fresh carrots and beets, some of the many different vegetables available at a local neighborhood farmer’s market.

“Nutrition in Cuba is tough…particularly for protein. Meats and fish are expensive, but eggs and beans are easy to get,” Victor said.

This was a reoccurring theme that kept coming up as I talked to more Cubans. The nutritional knowledge was there, but the supply and monetary means to follow this nutritional knowledge was another story.

Like in the United States nutritional supplements are becoming popular in the emerging fitness culture on the Island of Cuba. While talking to Alejandro at his gym he disappears into a side room and reappears a few seconds later with a huge grin on his face radiating a feeling of excitement. In his hand he has a bottle of whey protein powder with writing in Spanish. His joy can be attributed to the rarity of protein supplements on the island.

He refuses to tell me where he got it from, but goes on to say there is a black market for protein and other nutritional supplements in Cuba. This market is composed of products brought in from other countries such as Mexico, Venezuela, European nations, and even the United States.

Products from abroad are sold in Cuba for double or triple the market rate. Due to this lack of supply and mark up prices, they are out of reach for most Cubans.

A container of “MuscleMax”, Whey protein that was bought on the black market from Mexico.

Although a basic knowledge of nutrition existed for both the average gym goer and the fitness professional, the knowledge was learned from a variety of sources. This is due to the fact that in Cuba no certification is necessary to become a personal trainer or fitness professional.

While some who work in the field have educational experience, most do not. Ole, a personal trainer at a gym said, he learned about nutrition and fitness on the “streets” and other sources such as body builders, books, and the Internet.

Osorio, another personal trainer in Havana, actually went to school for the Cuban equivalent of an exercise science degree. He was a former boxer and body builder and had excellent knowledge regarding nutrition.

His advice for clients and average gym goers is to, “eat every 3 hours…vegetables, fruit, and natural juices, no fast food. Eat protein with every meal…eggs, burger, chicken breast.”

Osorio is very transparent about his nutritional habits. He says, “In the morning I eat five egg whites, oatmeal, and beef burger…three hours later fruit juice (smoothie)…for lunch fruits and vegetables…then train…after for dinner lots of proteins and vegetables”.

While this would seem like a pretty strict diet for anybody, he insists he is not as strict as he once was since he is older now and done competing in body building competitions, but you would not know it by looking at him.

Osorio is about 5 feet 6 or 7 inches, about 200 lbs with not an ounce of fat on him. His shirts are extra-large, but on his body they look like a size small.

Osorio is the poster child for the new Cuban dream as he grew up boxing and bodybuilding, but after the government eased restrictions on private businesses he was able to open his own gym.

Osorio, owner of Osorio’s gym, personal trainer, and former 2x body building champion of Cuba, poses for a photo

This is extremely important because all the gyms in Havana are privately owned and just opened a few years ago after the government allowed private businesses to operate. Before this all the fitness equipment and culture was confined to sports teams and their facilities.

As Cuba’s communist government increasingly opens up to the world and embraces a more free market economy it will be interesting to see how the island and its fitness culture changes. Only time will tell, but the passion and desire for this culture is already vibrant on the island and will only grow stronger as access increases.

A group fitness dance class led by a personal trainer during the hot afternoon heat in a gym containing no air conditioning.


An empty gym in Vedado, a neighborhood in Havana, during the mid-day workweek. The colorful equipment is very reflective of Cuban culture, which includes bright colored clothes and houses.